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From the 90s to today: how Ukraine communicated during the 30 years of its independence

As communicators, we decided to turn the pages of Ukrainian history: PR, marketing, media, advertising, creativity - what were they like 30, 20, 10 years ago?

We do not claim to be an exhaustive analysis of all chronologies and public cases, but it seems that we have managed to review, describe, notice the most interesting moments from 1991 to the present.

Dedicated to all PR people who work and develop in independent Ukraine and make daily decisions like what to say? whom? how? for what? and what the results will be.

1991-1995 years

The Act of Independence August 24, 1991 launched a new branch of the Ukrainian state. Leonid Kravchuk was elected the first president of independent Ukraine, and Poland and Canada were the first to recognize Ukraine. The state faces numerous political and economic challenges. However, the formation of Ukrainian statehood also meant the formation of the Ukrainian information space, Ukrainian communications, advertising, media market, and culture.

From January 1, 1991 , the Voice of Ukraine, the official publication of the Verkhovna Rada, has been published in Ukrainian and Russian five times a week (Tuesday to Saturday).

The following year, 1992 , the retransmission of programs from Moscow was stopped in Ukraine. The State Radio of Ukraine has switched to its own round-the-clock broadcasting network.

Key reasons that affected the country's reputation in the information space: Ukraine renounced nuclear weapons , joined the Council of Europe , adopted the Constitution and implemented hryvnia, and also approved the first attributes of its own brand - the music of the national anthem "Ukraine is not dead yet" and the national flag - blue-yellow banner.

December 1, 1992 - the national domain .ua was officially registered

In the 1990s, private media began to appear, and new TV channels were created at the expense of the oligarchs, for whom they were exclusively a political tool.

UT-1 became the only TV channel that provided 97% coverage of the country
  • TONIS , Yutar + , UT-1 have been broadcasting since Soviet times. In 1992, a private, purely entertaining non-political TV channel, TET-A-TET , appeared.
  • Studio 1 + 1 began its existence in 1995. The studio's production programs aired in September of the same year on UT-1 , and as an independent channel 1 + 1 has been broadcasting on the UT-2 network since 1997..
  • The UT-3 network started broadcasting the Interkanal information and entertainment channel in 1996.
"Village News" and children's magazine "Periwinkle" become one of the most widely circulated
  • Soviet newspaper leaders who pursued "their" socio-political and public policy "Izvestia" , "Trud" , "Komsomolskaya Pravda" , "Arguments and Facts" , "Interlocutor" , "Spark" and others either leave the Ukrainian market or establish in Ukraine the same name printed publications "Trud-Ukraine" , "Komsomolskaya Pravda in Ukraine", "Arguments and Facts in Ukraine" and continue the information policy of Ukraine as " younger sister. ”
  • Among the most famous socio-political and entertainment publications - "Kyiv News" , "All-Ukrainian News" , "Day" , Today , Mirror of the Week , Teleweek .
  • The Way of Victory is published in Lviv and Kyiv , a printed organ of Stepan Bandera's OUN, published in Munich since 1954 , and only in 1993 the publication was published in Ukraine.
  • At the same time, the newspaper "Silski Visti" , which had the highest circulation in Ukraine, faced political falsification. Two falsified pro-government issues were issued before the election.
  • Also in 1994 , the newspaper Poradnytsia was published. Political technologists still refer to this publication as the most widely circulated.
Galician Contracts becomes a leading advertising and information publication

Publications "Business" , "Business News" , "Galician Contracts" , "Business" , "Capital" replace Moscow "Kommersant" , "Business World" , "Business People" < /span>.

By the way, Lviv "Galician Contracts" - was a leading advertising and information and business publication in the western region and Ukraine. Lviv residents clearly associate the beginning of the career of today's mayor Andriy Sadovy with this publication.

"posters", stickers , stickers , flyers and ads were the most in demand in the advertising market in the early 90's. in the press

Instead, high-quality Ukrainian television advertising began to appear very gradually, and the best commercials in the 90s were created in Donetsk , Zaporizhia and Odessa .
  • 1990s were a period when many Moscow advertising agencies and political technologists "came" to us.
  • In the early 1990s, services began to develop in Ukraine that performed certain PR functions: press services under the president, governing bodies, and political parties. They also create their own PR services .
1996-2000 years

Ukrainians' access to the Internet, the rapid development of television, the creation of the Ukrainian Association of Public Relations and the emergence of specialized exhibitions on advertising, design and marketing characterize this period of history. Ukraine gets world reputation as a space power and a powerful football star - Andriy Shevchenko.

On January 1, 1997, the first issue of TSN was launched with Alla Mazur , which has been broadcast daily on "1 + 1" ever since. In 1997, TSN had two newscasts, two presenters and less than a dozen journalists. The backbone of the team is those who, together with the editor-in-chief Oleksandr Tkachenko , created the popular analytical program "Afterword" .

Georgy Gongadze founds
Ukrainian Truth
  • In April 2000 the first Ukrainian socio-political online media "Ukrainian Truth" appeared online. The site criticizes the authorities, resulting in the disappearance of project manager Georgy Gongadze in September 2000.
  • This period went down in history as the "Cassette Scandal", which erupted after the release of cassette recordings from the office of President Leonid Kuchma , which testify to his involvement in the murder of journalist Gongadze.
The cost of an hour online was estimated at UAH 30

In 1997 , Ukrainians gained open access to the Internet. At first, it was an expensive pleasure for corporate networks. The cost of an hour online was estimated at UAH 30, which was $ 16 .

An important step in the development of public relations was the establishment in 1997 of the Ukrainian Association of Public Relations

The association was registered in 1998 and was headed by Georgy Pocheptsov, Professor, Head of the Department of International Information at the Institute of International Relations at Kyiv State University. And the first PR department in Ukraine in the representation of the International Finance Corporation was formed in early 1994 by one of the first PR specialists of independent Ukraine - Dmytro Konik .

The first PR courses were organized at the Institute of Sociology in 1997 (later called the PR School ). The courses were led first by Valentyn Korolko, then by Andriy Rotovsky, and by Dmytro Konyk. The Department of Public Relations was first established in 2000 at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy by Professor Valentyn Korolko.

Advertising exhibitions and festivals are developing. Among them: International Exhibition "Advertising-99" , "Design-99" , interregional exhibition "Advertising, Printing, Information" in Donetsk , International advertising competition "Star Mill" , Day "Epics" in Ukraine, III International scientific-practical conference "Marketing: theory and practice " in Yalta , IV International Advertising Festival " Golden Profile-99 ", specialized exhibition " Advertising Industry-99 ", National advertising competition "Advertising Formula-99" , etc.

The catalog of the exhibition "Advertising-96" includes 45 organizations that declared PR-services.

Since 1997 Ukraine has been hosting a specialized exhibition "Advertising. Printing industry. Media ", the leading exhibition of Eastern Ukraine in the field of advertising, printing, media.

Magazines for advertisers in the 90s

The first Ukrainian magazines for advertisers began to appear in the 90's: A & PR digest (1995-1998), "Marketing and Advertising" (since 1996), "Advertising Club" (1997-1999), "Effective Advertising" (1998-1999), "Mirror of Advertising" (since 1999) and etc.

Drives that shaped the country's reputation in the infospace: among the six astronauts aboard the shuttle "Colombia" - Ukrainian Leonid Kadenyuk ; a hat-trick against Barcelona in the UEFA Champions League match brings Andriy Shevchenko world fame; Oksana Zabuzhko's book "Field Research on Ukrainian Sex" becomes a Ukrainian bestseller and the most notable female work of independent Ukraine; The first mass action under the slogan "Ukraine without Kuchma" starts.

2001-2005 years

For Ukraine, this is a turning point, when the formation of institutions of statehood ended and the formation of society began. Scientists from the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the International Center for Democratic Initiatives insist on this somewhat paradoxical thesis.

Ukrainian media is becoming more pluralistic and independent, the social network Facebook is emerging and becoming the most visited site in the world.

An online publication about the Ukrainian media market appears "Telekritika"

Since 2001, the Ukrainian-language radio station Kraina FM (formerly Gala Radio and EU Radio ) has become a network station, starting broadcasting in many regions of Ukraine. The first all-Ukrainian music TV channel "M1"

also started test broadcasting.

Since March 2002 the weekly socio-political magazine "Correspondent" has been published. It covers a wide range of issues, from current and interesting news to special case studies on politics, society, business, science and technology, health, sports, education, culture and leisure.

The publication played an important role in the "journalistic revolution " that preceded the Orange revolution 2004 .

LinkedIn appears - a social network for finding and establishing business contacts

The social network, founded by Reid Hoffman in December 2002, will be used in May 2003.

Private "Channel 5" based on "BBC" standards

Ukrainian private information and educational TV channel "Channel 5" was founded in September 2003 and belongs to Petro Poroshenko . The channel features hourly newscasts and evening guest studios, documentaries and educational programs of its own production. During the 2004 presidential election, Channel 5 was the only TV channel that provided airtime to both the government and the opposition. The channel's employees complained of pressure from the authorities and pro-government politicians.

"square" , "chopped oranges" "American felt boots" appear in the dictionary, and among the tools of communication and means of influence - sticker campaigns.
  • In 2004, black-and-white stickers with the question "What is Kuchmaism?" appeared on the streets of 20 regional centers. Thus, the civil campaign "It's time!" motivated the public to go to Maidan . She later responded with a series of stickers: " Kuchism is unemployment, crime, poverty, corruption and hopelessness." As Viktor Yanukovych was Kuchma's protege in the 2004 elections, all information resources were directed against him.
  • Within the framework of the positive information campaign, the belief was spread that the individual problem of each citizen can be solved by overcoming "Kuchism" .

Key reasons that shaped the country's reputation in the information space: the Orange revolution of 2004 as a reaction to the massive falsifications that affected the election result; Ruslana Lyzhychko with the song "Wild Dances" became the first Ukrainian performer to win "Eurovision" ; inauguration of Victor Yushchenko .

The world's largest social network Facebook has started.
  • After the Orange Revolution, the Ukrainian media became more pluralistic and independent, such as the government's attempts to restrict press freedom through tax audits.
  • The public organization "Media Detector" (until April 27, 2016 - the public organization "Telekritika"), founded by the team of Natalia Ligachova , has appeared. This is the story of the transformation of the author's niche online project into the main media about media in Ukraine, the development of a multifunctional platform and a professional community of media experts.
  • In 2005, the printed all-Ukrainian socio-political Gazeta po-Ukrainski was published, as well as the weekly magazine Kraina and the information and news Internet resource Gazeta.ua .
  • According to the ranking Alexa Rank , the site facebook.com ranks 7th in terms of traffic in the world.
  • In the same year, the humorous TV show "Evening Quarter" appeared, the main themes of which were political and social satire, and "Freedom of Speech" - a political talk show on the TV channel. ICTV with discussions of politicians, officials, public figures on current political topics of the week.
  • A national professional non-governmental organization of PR specialists "Ukrainian League for Public Relations" has been established. And in 2005 the profession of "PR" was officially approved.
2006-2010 years

Political advertising thrash , the Decree on the establishment of public television and strict censorship in the media became part of this period of independent Ukraine, where, meanwhile, boxer Volodymyr Klitschko , artist Ivan Marchuk , plane "Dream" form a reputation beyond national borders.

The Orange Revolution brand is used in advertising

Political technologists speculate on "traditional values" and language issues in opposition television to Yushchenko . Just remember the message "Not so!" , a video in which the teacher does not allow the child to leave the classroom because the girl asks in Russian , and black priest.

  • At the same time, revolutionary symbols are used to promote cultural events: the Publishers' Forum in Lviv has placed a billboard similar to the political "We believe we can Yes! 5 books will save the country" .
  • The first Ukrainian Crimean Tatar local TV channel ATR has started broadcasting (since 2015, due to the annexation of Crimea by Russia, the channel will broadcast from Kyiv ).
  • A new product of PJSC "Today Multimedia" has appeared in the information space - information and news portal www.segodnya.ua.
Preparation of the concept of public television and radio broadcasting of Ukraine starts

In 2008 Victor Yushchenko signed the Decree "On Measures to Establish a System of Public Television and Radio Broadcasting of Ukraine", which provided for the preparation and approval during the year of the relevant state Concept .

  • In the same year, Viktor and Olena Pinchuks created StarLightMedia , a Ukrainian media company that became a leader in television. This also includes ICTV .
  • Telekritika launches the Mediablogs project, a network of media blogs.
  • Wikimedia Ukraine , an NGO that supports the wiki community, holds international competitions, provides grant support, and advocates for panoramic freedom in Ukraine .

Key reasons that affected the country's reputation in the information space: the law on mandatory dubbing of films in the Ukrainian language was adopted; boxer Wladimir Klitschko became the world champion according to the IBF for the first time; The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine recognized the Holodomor of 1932-1933 as genocide of the Ukrainian people; artist Ivan Marchuk entered the list "100 geniuses of today living today" of the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph ; the crew of An-225 "Dream" was awarded a certificate of entry of the record flight of the aircraft in the Guinness Book of Records Guinness ; Viktor Yanukovych became President of Ukraine.

Censorship appears, "dungeons" return
  • In 2010 with the beginning of Viktor Yanukovych's presidency , the idea of ​​creating a Public Broadcasting was put in a drawer, and journalists began to fight against the criminalization of the article for defamation .
  • In an open letter to Yanukovych, the International Press Institute stated that the situation with press freedom in Ukraine has deteriorated alarmingly over the past six months .
  • Media Holding Media Group Ukraine , owned by oligarch Rinat Akhmetov , combines television, publishing and new media projects.
2011-2017 years

Euromaidan has strengthened Ukrainian communication both inside and outside the country. Blocking VKontakte and Classmates , digitalization and popularity of new media and banning a number of Russian TV channels, visa-free regime between Ukraine and EU became a powerful social leap.

Key reasons that influenced the country's reputation in the information space: founded "Book Arsenal" , for 9 years its existence was visited by more than half a thousand artists and experts from more than half a hundred countries of the world; Vitaliy and Volodymyr Klychky became the owners of all championship belts in the heavyweight category of professional boxing; The Verkhovna Rada passed a scandalous law ( Kolesnichenko-Kivalov Law ), which provides for the use of regional languages ​​at the local level; the beginning of Euromaidans throughout Ukraine and the Revolution of Dignity; Yanukovych is fleeing the country; Russia annexes Crimea ; journalist Pavel Sheremet is killed.

  • Dmytro Firtash became the owner of the media holding Valery Khoroshkovsky Inter media group limited with TV channels Inter , NTN , K1 , MEGA , Enter-film , K2 , Pixel and MTV , for $ 2.5 billion .
  • Facebook is becoming a tool of protest: the post of journalist Mustafa Nayem and in a few hours on the social network collected thousands of reposts and became the impetus for the beginning of Euromaidan on November 21 .
The YouTube channel of Public Television has become the largest channel in the history of the site in terms of the number of hours live.
  • In November 2013 , eight Ukrainian journalists created Public Television , which became one of the most important sources of information about Euromaidan events. It is mainly funded by international funds and readers' contributions. On December 1, the channel's broadcast was watched by about 100,000 viewers.
  • In 2014 , the online magazine “The Ukrainians” was created, which tells about successful Ukrainians who develop and promote our country. Taras Prokopyshyn became the project manager.
  • The Verkhovna Rada adopts the law "On Public Television and Radio Broadcasting in Ukraine ".
  • The National Television Company of Ukraine is headed by journalist Zurab Alasania and states that its main goal is to create public broadcasting in Ukraine.
Twitter boom: in 2014 search indexed almost 600,000 Ukrainian accounts
  • The average number of tweets per day increased from 80,000 to 180 . Since the beginning of Euromaidan, the share of tweets in Ukrainian has doubled - from 6 to 12%, and on February 18-22, 2014, messages in Ukrainian were more than a quarter of all tweets from Ukrainian accounts. The #euromaidan tag became the most common from the beginning of the protests until the end of July. During this time, it has been used more than 700,000 in three languages.
  • Political memes have become a separate tool of communication: "Christmas tree" , "professor" , "rewrote the house for a cat" have long been in use.
  • The official page of Ukraine has appeared on the social network Twitter .
  • Media Detector , Skrypin.ua and Army FM were established.
  • Initiated by Ukraine World international. The group brought together 170 journalists and experts from around the world to cover the Ukrainian issue professionally and without manipulation. The materials of this group are published on such platforms as Atlantic Council , Newsweek , Hromadske International and Ukrainian Crisis Media Center .
  • Strana.ua has appeared. The publication was founded in February 2016 by Igor Guzhva , a journalist and former owner of Multimedia Invest Group, which has ties to Russia.
Law on quotas for Ukrainian songs and language on radio adopted: share of programs and films in Ukrainian is at least 75%
  • Radio "Trident FM" and Kraina FM , Radio1.ua were created with exclusively Ukrainian broadcasting, which also covered the anti-terrorist operation zone.
Boom new media
  • The decline of the advertising market in the post-Maidan period was offset by new media: video blogs and social networks, which are beginning to grow. Digitalization has become a trend, with videos taking the lead since then, as video viewing has become a major occupation among young people.
Emergence of the first public broadcaster in Ukraine
  • In 2017 the National Public Television and Radio Company of Ukraine was registered.
  • The USA published the first issue of The Ukrainian : Life and Culture magazine, designed to create a positive image of Ukraine.
  • A number of Russian TV channels have been banned in Ukraine, such as: "All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company", "NTV-PLUS" , "Television and Radio Company of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation" "Zvezda" , "TNT-TELEMEREZHA" , "MOSCOW MEDIA" , "RK MEDIA" , "International News Agency " Russia Today " , Our Radio .
2018-2021 years

The well-used trend towards digitalisation in the election campaign at this stage of history will undoubtedly become a textbook case . Meanwhile, the spread of coronavirus and isolation have forced Ukrainians to look differently at information sources and promote new content formats.

Key reasons that affected the country's reputation in the information space: The Verkhovna Rada officially recognized Russia as a military aggressor and occupier and approved "Glory to Ukraine" congratulations in the army and police; the US Senate recognized the Holodomor of 1932-1933 in Ukraine as genocide; the TV series "Chernobyl" by the NGO was released; WHO declared a pandemic and quarantine was introduced in Ukraine; The Swedish National Archives has provided Ukraine with three copies of the Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk .

The app Instagram becomes the leader in Ukraine in the number of downloads among other social networks
  • The number of Ukrainian Instagram users in 2018 increased by 50.7% and reached 11 million .
The country's largest political show

With an effective digital campaign on YouTube , Instagram , Facebook and Telegram > around Volodymyr Zelensky we managed to attract the audience to interact and generate millions of likes and loyal commentators.

As part of the election campaign, the first debate in Ukrainian history took place at the Olimpiysky Stadium with the participation of more than 20,000 people . This event entered the history of Ukraine as the largest political show .

The printed socio-political newspaper Segodnya , which has been repeatedly criticized for its anti-Ukrainian character, has ceased to exist.

The Law of Ukraine “On Ensuring the Functioning of the Ukrainian Language as the State Language” was adopted, which began to regulate the use of the Ukrainian language as the state language in the spheres of public life.

In 2020, on the border with the temporarily occupied territories, a new state entertainment and information TV channel Dom began broadcasting.

People have become more picky about the source of information and prefer media with a good image
  • News journalism has almost completely gone online, and coronavirus has forced authoritative media to choose.
  • Self-isolation has increased the consumption of video content, so the social network TikTok has rapidly gained popularity in Ukraine.
  • In April 2020, the social network Clubhouse appeared in Ukraine.
  • There is a growing demand for audio formats , which is affecting the growing popularity of podcasts in Ukraine.
The norm of the Law on Language comes into force, according to which citizens must be served in Ukrainian .
  • In February 2021 TVs "NewsOne" , "ZIK" and "112 Ukraine" will stop broadcasting > instead rebrands and restarts First Independent.
The official page of the social network Instagram has appeared in Ukraine.
54% of Ukrainian Facebook users post fakes and manipulations.
  • These are the results of a study of the level of information hygiene of Ukrainians on Facebook, conducted by the initiative "How not to become a vegetable" .
  • After the spring quarantine wave of 2020, Ukrainian publications decided to try to make money directly from readers. These are pevols (paid access to materials), donate (donations from readers) and "readers' clubs" (paid club membership gives certain editorial bonuses , opportunities to communicate with the editors, additional content).
The autumn local election campaign was a triumph for the owners' influence on the media.
  • For example, in Rivne , two teams associated with mayoral candidates have acquired two competing channels . Local elections have brought not only changes in media ownership but also in content. The priority of most of the top information platforms was not the delivery of socially important information to voters, but the competition of messages that are beneficial to the owner or his partners or protégés.
  • Television Museum
  • What was advertising in Ukraine in the 90s, Bazilik.media
  • Political advertising in Ukraine: a pear for beating and the heart of the parliamentary races of 2006 and 2007, 24tv.ua
  • Videos from the past: how Ukrainian advertising has changed in 30 years, 24tv.ua
  • Social Advertising: History and Bright Cases , Bazilik.media
  • Serhiy Kvit "Mass Communications", Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Publishing House, 2018
  • Georgy Pocheptsov "Modern Information Wars", Kyiv-Mohyla Academy Publishing House, 2015