17 types of manipulations

2021-10-15 00:00:00

Everyone is manipulating. So you can paraphrase the name of the first series of the cult series” Doctor House”. Manipulation today is the same element of everyday life as the usual request. In itself, it can not be good or bad, because above all, it is a tool. The main source and inspiration for this article was book Albrecht Müller ” Believe a little, doubt in everything, think for yourself:” How to see through manipulation” (original German” Glaube wenig, hinterfrage alles, denke selbst: Wie man Manipulationen durchschaut”). The following describes 17 types of manipulations with examples. I will note that the book gives examples mostly from German history, but there are situations related to Ukraine. Often the author’s view of certain events does not coincide with that which prevails in our infospace. Yes, he notes the” undermining of confidence” in Russia through NATO’s expansion to its borders. In connection with the” annexation of Crimea”, he takes the first word in quotation marks, which calls it into question. That is why the article provides more relevant and illustrative examples for the Ukrainian infospace.

1. Language regulation

Arrangements for targeted regulation of words that will be used in communication affect public opinion. These may be the definitions of some countries’ regimes” democratic”,” autocratic” or” dictatorial”. Or the use of the terms” revolution” or” coup d’etat” in relation to an event in a square in the center of the city;” Movement towards dictatorship” or” step in the fight against the oligarchy” regarding the adoption of a certain bill. Consider an example of manipulation on two conditional headers of the same event: 1.” Radical groups tried to carry out a coup d’etat” – is perceived as a threat, a cause for concern. 2.” Proponents of the country’s democratic development actively protested in the city center” – is perceived as news of a positive tone, which does not pose a risk to public safety.

2. Use terms that have strong associations

To simplify the perception of information, we think in categories. Having identified” their” and” others”, you can quickly navigate the situation, evaluate the news or phenomenon that saves effort. Therefore, terms that have strong associations are often used as labels for devaluation in the fight against opponents. It is important that they have opposite effects for different people. Examples of terms used in political manipulation are” pro-European” and” pro-Russian”,” right” and” left” radicals,” scoop” and” nationalist” views,” populist”,” traitor”,” bot”.

3. Short stories

Depending on when you start telling the story, you can come to different conclusions. Or you can tell the whole truth or shorten the story. Yes, sometimes conciseness is a necessity. However, even telling a known historical fact, it is desirable to explain the course of events not linearly. An example of an post that was viral 2019:

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In it, the complex history of the decline of the Roman Empire – a process that is still the subject of discussion – is reduced to a simple line of interaction between the comedian-emperor and the short-sighted people with an obvious parallel to the events in Ukraine in 2019. This example of manipulation is complex enough to look plausible and simple enough for a Ukrainian Facebook user to draw the right conclusions, as seen in the comments.

4. Default

Instead of telling a simplified version or part of a story, you can resort to complete silence. Actions involving special services are often overlooked, although there are other, non-obvious examples of this type of manipulation. A well-known example is the actions of the Soviet authorities during the Chernobyl disaster. Moreover, the manipulation of the default was applied at different levels of the state apparatus. Firefighters did not know that they came to put out not only the fire on the roof, but also the nuclear reactor that exploded. The parade on the occasion of the International Workers’ Solidarity Day was held in Kyiv at a time when all foreign mass media were reporting a threat to people’s lives. А recognition before the international community was obtained only after the pressure caused by Sweden’s statement. A more recent example of such manipulation is default by Uber data theft of 57 million customers. Hackers were paid $ 100,000 for not disclosing information about the incident. The burglary and ransom happened in October 2016, but it became known on November 22, 2017 thanks to the Bloomberg investigation.

5. Recurrence

This type of manipulation can be used in conjunction with the spread of falsehood and half-truths. And thus – to act as a catalyst in consolidating the desired message. An example is the constant repetition of the propaganda mantra on pro-Russian platforms about” Ukraine’s external governance” or about” internal conflict” in the East. After regularly repeating the message, the audience begins to believe in it. Remember that water grinds stone.

6. Exaggeration

To achieve a more emotional effect from the message, you can simply exaggerate. Example: ” Rabinovich: By resignation Razumkov’s government legalized political prostitution” . Apparently, several manipulations are used here, and it is an exaggeration to use the link” legalization of political prostitution.”

7. Same message from different sides

We take into account a wide range of sources: media, bloggers, experts, opinion leaders. We add social media feeds, news selections, radio, television, Youtube, newspapers, magazines. And thus from various sources the necessary messages arrive. This unification of opinions is influenced by the specifics of the algorithms of social networks. Systems can take into account not only preferences, but also every click and time spent with the publication, and based on this” smart” news feed complements the information bubble. Therefore, on Facebook you can see the same political slogans, messages, events every day – from politicians, media, bloggers, bots, etc.

8. If everyone in the group says the same thing, it must be true

When talking about this method of manipulation, it is worth remembering about intragroup favoritism, ie the tendency to promote members of your group, and respect for authority. It is quite difficult to hold the opinion of the opposite majority. If” everyone” and” everywhere” broadcast the same message, it can be taken for granted. According to the author, often even incomplete unanimity in communication is enough for purposeful manipulation. For example, when 3-4 experts (real or fictitious) on a talk show hold the same opinion, and they are opposed by 1-2 people who, representing the opposite position, may behave unprofessionally, inappropriately, scandalously. This gives the impression of a confrontation of opinions, where, on the one hand, there are respected experts (real or fictitious), perhaps in a team with a leader, and on the other hand – unprofessional behavior of incomprehensible representatives of the opposition message.

9. Swing effect

Or the effect of opposition. When we are told how terrible one side is, we may think that the opposite is good. An example of the large-scale effect of swings in Ukrainian realities is the 1999 elections, in which presidential candidate Leonid Kuchma opposed himself to Communist Petro Symonenko. The majority of the politically active population could not allow the communists to return to power, so Leonid Danilovich was able to get a second term. Another example is the Cold War-era poster . Describing how horrible the actions of the capitalist bloc are, one can impose the idea that the actions of the Communists are good.

10. Poll

Social polls can be used to influence voter opinion. These surveys can be a factor in legitimizing the promotion of ideas, messages. It is worth noting that it is not only about the ability to” buy results” or” create the necessary picture”, but also in people. Depending on the place, time, mood, number of cases per day, state of mind, interviewer, the presence of other respondents, their mood, behavior and other factors – the answer to the same question may be different.

11. Say” A” and mean” B”

Another type of manipulation that the author singles out is to claim that the subject is not really bad/ineffective, but only misperceived by the audience because he” sells himself” badly. That is, according to the report, the” Yellow Party” simply communicates poorly about its work” (A) hides the implication” So, the” Yellow” Party performs its tasks well” (B).

12. Creating or using non-governmental organizations

To give weight to the subject of the message broadcast, it is possible to strengthen its status by position or involvement in non-governmental organizations. There is also room for manipulation when working with grants: for example, using the grantor’s resources, a non-governmental organization can use public relations tools – to publish articles in the local media – and thus promote manipulative messages.

13. The sum of the hints turns the half-truth into the truth

An example is the submission of information by telegram channel on the death of People’s Deputy Anton Polyakov:

Such a chain of allusions suggests premeditated murder, although the Kyiv police did not confirm the information about the switched off video surveillance cameras. And in itself, the statement about the testimony in NABU fits into the opposition-critical rhetoric of the faction’s ex-member and will not matter much in the proposed version.

14. Experts help to manipulate

However, in the media space, the word” expert” is already quite discredited, and people who have such a status may be impostors. And their common feature is often political involvement. Yes, the average Ukrainian may not understand the principles of economics or the importance of economic indicators, or even the limits of the duties and responsibilities of officials. And this is a fertile ground for the use of” experts” as a tool of manipulation. One such” experts “.

15. Linking names and using them to impose a rating

To equate people or positions to others or to allow negative thoughts to spread to others, they can be equated by putting them in a row. Example description of a video:” If you put everything together and see how the coalition is formed in Ukraine, the future union will look like this: Vladimir Zelensky, Yulia Tymoshenko, Putin’s godfather Viktor Medvedchuk, Yuri Boyko and Igor Smeshko. It is Zelensky, Tymoshenko, Boyko, Medvedchuk and Smeshko who will form a coalition with their parties after the next parliamentary elections.”

16. Targeted use of emotions

Instead of turning to logic, turn to emotions. An emotional call can yield startling results. In fact, this type of manipulation can be found in the posters of 1917-1921: example 1 , example 2 .

17. Using conflicts

Divide and rule. Conflict portrayed in the media can be artificially created. The political system works on the principle of separation and work with the electorate. And conflicts, especially those that appear on the screens, can also be a good mix of the types of manipulations described above. Subconsciously, the viewer chooses someone’s side and ultimately supports the active action. For example, a tick in the ballot. An example is the conflict related to sprava Serhiy Sternenko. It is interesting that the assessments of citizens significantly depend on their political sympathies. If you’ve read this far, you may now be able to” see through manipulation.” Take into account details, arguments, think critically – and do not allow yourself to be manipulated.

Author: Taras Humeniuk

We live in a time when the information space is full of different messages. There are so many of them that sometimes we perceive the next news as information noise. A person is able to perceive, understand and use only a tiny fraction of all messages coming from social networks, television, media, or native advertising. It is becoming increasingly difficult for large companies or brands to deliver individual messages to their audiences and to communicate with them for a long time. However, effective communication, image maintenance, and reputation management are essential for companies. It is estimated that the corporate image is about 63% of the value of most corporations. Therefore, more and more companies and brands use PR in their activities. Public relations or PR involves creating special communication strategies that help customers build their reputation, generate sales, and achieve business goals.

Let’s take a closer look at what PR is
PR (public relations) is an abbreviation of the English “public relations”, which means “public relations”. PR is the practice of purposefully managing and disseminating information between an individual or organization, such as a business, government agency, or nonprofit organization, and the public.

The purpose of PR is to inform the public about a brand or company, potential customers, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders. Forming a loyal attitude to the company through effective communication.

PR is about: Persuasion: You can persuade the audience to spread your idea or message, buy your product or service, maintain a position, or acknowledge your achievements. A strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between companies and the public. Protect, improve or build your reputation through the media, social networks, or your own sites. What includes PR:

  • writing and distributing press releases;
  • writing speeches;
  • writing presentation materials;
  • Creating and conducting special events for working with the public and working with the media;
  • expanding business contacts through personal acquaintances;
  • sponsorship of various events;
  • Writing articles and blogging;
  • writing anti-crisis pr-strategies;
  • social media promotion;
  • Responses to negative messages about companies.

Where PR comes from

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a growing interest in the social and behavioral characteristics that govern the public and public opinion. An important role was played by the emergence of sociological research methods, in particular opinion polls, which allowed to qualitatively and quantitatively assess public opinion on a particular issue. For the first time, PR was widely used in the United States in the political sphere. During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), American revolutionaries used the PR tools commonly used today: symbols, slogans, and the promotion of important topics in the media. The next area for PR was the presidential campaign: in the early nineteenth century, for the first time in the election staff was included a press secretary. The need for public support for the candidates to make the presidential campaign a success was recognized. In the commercial world, the first to use PR to influence their customers were banks, later large conglomerates adopted the practice and began to create their own PR departments. At the turn of the century, private PR consultants began to appear, mostly satisfying the interests of the private sector and helping them protect themselves from mackerel journalists who made sensational revelations. Their clients included railroads, telecommunications companies, and groups interested in lobbying other states and federal governments. By the 1930s, commercial and nonprofit organizations, as well as government agencies, were increasingly implementing PR strategies. The power of public relations grew due to the expansion of the newspaper industry and the launch of commercial radio. Techniques used in public relations gradually became more complex, primarily due to social research. They helped to divide the population into groups with certain characteristics and made it possible to specifically target communications. Increasingly, images were combined with words and symbols to add emotional appeal to rational arguments. The earliest definitions of PR focused on press and publicity agencies, while modern definitions pay special attention to involvement and building relationships through communication. For example, in 1982, PRSA published the following definition of PR: “PR is what helps an organization and its community adapt to each other.” A few decades later, a new, more relevant definition was developed: “PR is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their audiences.”

What else does PR include in the modern sense

Let’s understand the points:

  1. Anticipate, analyze, and interpret public opinion, views, and issues that may affect a company’s or brand’s plans.
  2. Advise management at all levels of the company on decisions, action plans, and communications, including crisis communication.
  3. Protect your company or brand reputation.
  4. Study, conduct and evaluate communication actions to achieve the public understanding necessary to successfully achieve the company’s goals.
  5. Goal setting, planning, budget approval, promotion, recruitment and training of company employees, and management of resources needed to accomplish all of the above.
  6. Control content creation and leads.

About modern PR agencies and what they do

A PR agency is a set of structural units that solve problems of interaction between the company and the public, enhance the image through the study of public opinion, and the successful implementation of well-thought-out communications. The PR agency is also approached to raise public awareness of the brand, and improve or protect its reputation. In addition, the activities of the agency can be aimed at attracting audiences, highlighting the corporate or social responsibility of the company, and improving or developing a personal brand first person. Perfect PR Agency implements communication solutions in the private, public, and public sectors. During the work of the agency +5272 was realized PR materials, +72 PR strategies, and +823 media events. Agency services include political, commercial, and personal PR, development of PR strategies, PR-audit, Digital PR, and reputation management.

About those who work in agencies – pr-managers

PR managers establish and maintain relationships with the company’s target audience, media, and opinion leaders. General responsibilities of a PR manager include:

  • development of communication campaigns;
  • Writing press releases and news information;
  • work with the press;
  • arranging interviews for company representatives;
  • Writing speeches for company executives;
  • acting as an official representative of the organization;
  • preparing clients for press conferences;
  • developing a website and content concept for social media;
  • company reputation management (crisis communications);
  • management of internal communications of the company and organization of marketing; measures that increase brand awareness.

Success in public relations requires a deep understanding of the interests and concerns of each of the company’s many stakeholders. A public relations professional needs to know how to effectively address these issues using the most powerful public relations tool, publicity.

About the PR campaign, the one through “a”.

A PR campaign is a series of planned activities that have specific goals and are aimed at achieving success in communication between the company and the public.

What is the purpose of the PR campaign?

The purpose of a PR campaign always depends on the customer’s request, and what exactly needs to be achieved: increase sales, increase visibility or conduct anti-crisis communications to improve the brand reputation.

What tasks does the PR campaign solve:

  • establishes brand identity and enhances public authority;
  • Increases brand interest;
  • helps build a customer base;
  • helps increase sales and increase revenue;
  • Attracts investors’ attention.

How to measure the results of a PR campaign

Before implementing any PR campaign, specific goals and performance indicators must be defined. These can be the number of mentions and publications in the media, indicators of coverage or involvement of users, and the number of units sold. By defining such indicators, you can measure and evaluate the success of the campaign.

Social media PR

PR in social networks allows the company to communicate with its audience in real-time, which is convenient and accessible. This is an effective solution that can help build relationships with readers. For effective use of social networks, it is important that the content broadcast by the company is focused on a specific topic, optimized, thought-provoking, and engaging to the audience. The strategy of PR in social networks should be adapted to each company and industry. It must be based on a correct understanding of the brand, reputation, and tone of voice, which must be clearly conveyed through the content on the networks. Social networks Facebook, LinkedIn, Instagram, and Twitter have a total of more than 3.8 billion users, which provides many opportunities for PR. Dissemination of information about updates in the company, promotion of products or services, and interaction with customers are just some of them. It is important to know your key audience, and its requests and choose the optimal channels for the most effective communication. Then move on to developing a content plan that should be fully integrated into the overall communication strategy. In this way, it will help attract new customers, inform the public about the brand and increase the company’s reputation by spreading messages from management.

About digital or digital PR

Digital PR helps a company reach more of its target customers by posting information about it or its product on websites that users visit, in podcasts, they listen to, and on the social media accounts, they view. Digital PR has a positive effect on the visibility and ranking of the company’s website in the search engine. Digital PR also includes online publishing, affiliate marketing, press releases, and social media content. Thus, information about you will be in news feeds and social media feeds, such mentions will help the company to be visible in the communication space and increase its visibility. Digital PR activities will create a sense of your brand’s online presence, and such communication will be successful.

About PR within reputation management

For a company or individual to be successful, it is important to constantly work on maintaining a reputation. An effective reputation management strategy begins with understanding what reputation the company currently has and what it wants to gain. Organizations, government agencies, or public figures are usually closely monitored and controlled by the media, activists, or the public. Therefore, it is important to report not only the fact of their activities but also their benefits. For example, company executives may speak at various thematic forums, and conferences, or be invited to speak in the media. At the same time, one must be able to express and communicate one’s position to the public. It is also important for large corporations to take care to eliminate potential threats to their image. Consider three main threats to a company’s reputation:

  • change in communication technologies (in cases when the company suddenly and inexpediently changes the way, style, and channels of communication for its audience);
  • negative targeted influence of certain groups (there are cases when reputational crises are caused artificially, due to the activities of interested groups or companies, then there are bots attacks on your company’s social networks or negative fake news);
  • low level of public confidence (in reputational crises, a low level of public confidence is an extremely negative factor that will make it more difficult to implement anti-crisis campaigns, which will cause severe reputational damage).

It is necessary to systematically monitor negative mentions in the media, which will help in case of a problem to quickly identify and neutralize it, thus minimizing the negative consequences for the company’s reputation. Work to prevent negative sentiment among stakeholders and ensure broad recognition of the company’s values ​​and achievements.

Anti-crisis communications

Anti-crisis communications are a way to solve a negative situation around a company or brand. The starting point for any effective anti-crisis communication is the acceptance of the fact that even after doing everything possible to prevent crises, they can still happen sooner or later. Therefore, it is important not only to plan their solutions as early as possible but also to know to which audience they will be directed and what you will tell them. Anti-crisis communications are a certain insurance policy, but it may not work if you do not constantly take active measures to interact and establish public relations, and do not develop trust. Such regular activities will increase the likelihood that you will be heard in the implementation of crisis communications. Perfect PR Agency has a successful experience in the implementation of anti-crisis communications, thanks to effective tools and the right information channels, we quickly neutralize the information crisis, as well as analyze and design potential threats to a business or the public in the future.

Examples of PR and pr-campaigns:

1. Creation of the official page of Ukraine on Instagram. At the initiative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine and the Ukrainian Institute, an official page of Ukraine (@ ukraine.ua) was created in order to promote the positive image of Ukraine on social networks. Such a communication solution will help foreigners get to know our country better and not associate it with war or third-world countries. The purpose of the page is to form an image of an innovative, modern, beautiful, and interesting state, which should also positively affect Ukraine’s reputation among foreign audiences and increase tourist interest in Ukraine.

2. Campaign to protect bees from UNESCO and Guerlain. The photo, where actress Angelina Jolie poses with 60,000 bees on her face and body, gained popularity on the Internet and gained 2.4 million likes on the National Geographic Instagram page during the day. All in order to raise awareness of the problem of annual bee population decline and to make the public aware of a new program designed to empower female beekeepers around the world.

3. Adidas Watch Us Move campaign to overcome sports taboos and outdoor pools in the UAE. At the request of Adidas, a research company conducted a study in the UAE and found that only 12% of women feel comfortable in swimsuits on the beach and pool. Therefore, the goal of the brand is to make every woman feel free in the water. The company has released a new inclusive series of swimwear and installed a swimming pool in the form of a floating billboard. So that every woman can dive into a huge outdoor pool and at the same time feel comfortable and free.

Successful communication is an opportunity to express yourself, your product or service, establish contact with your customer and become meaningful to him. Impeccable reputation – is designed to increase trust among customers, and to help build strong and lasting relationships. All these are the deposits of a successful and stable business and the realization of this becomes possible thanks to PR. Its value and importance are projected to grow, so it is better to start taking care of quality communications now and to remain important for your client always.

Author: Maryna Redko

PR strategy

2021-11-30 00:00:00

According to latest communication research of Ukrainian agrarian market, 89% of companies use PR tools in their activities. However, the researchers emphasized the lack of a strategic and comprehensive approach to communications for most companies. We share the features of communications for agricultural companies.

Specialized events

Every farmer attends an exhibition, forum, conference at least once a year to find the necessary goods for their own business and to present their own products. Among the large number of Ukrainian and foreign manufacturers – it is easy to get lost. Therefore, in addition to traditional printing and product samples, you should be creative in the design of the stands to stand out from the competition and attract the attention of participants. Modern tools for this are VR-technologies, or video 3600, 3D-holograms, etc. Offer an interesting presentation of your product and the queue of those who want to test the novelty will not disappear near your stand. [[::facebook::]]

Off-season communications

The seasonality factor in the agricultural sector is key. Search and purchase of seeds, mineral fertilizers, necessary equipment, periods of sowing, fertilization, harvesting – are very busy for all farmers. However, this does not mean that in the off-season, such as winter, companies should stop communicating. After all, this is exactly the period when farmers have more free time and they can be directed to communication messages in digital, specialized forums, industry media. In addition to useful and informative content in the off-season, you can communicate with the audience with interactive content, mem-jacking. The latter can have a great viral effect, which will increase the recognition of your brand. [[::instagram::]]

Not the only agrarian media

High-quality media base is a key advantage of effective mailings and communication with editorial offices. In addition to agricultural media (both online and print formats), attention should be paid to public and business media. There are several reasons for this: on such media platforms there is less competition with other market operators that are actively promoted in agricultural media; business media is probably read by representatives of the B2B segment, so this is a good opportunity to prove yourself there. If your company operates only in a certain region, be sure to communicate at regional sites. This contributes to the formation of the company’s reputation at the local level and the brand of the employer.

Feedback from experts and market participants

The agrarian community is very developed in Ukraine. Usually market operators, contractors know each other, communicate at industry events, online platforms, trust the expert opinions of colleagues and scientists. Therefore, joint materials, collaborations, video reviews of your products from your customers and other agricultural market participants always have a positive effect in building loyalty to the trust of your company. [[::telegram::]]

Omnichannel approach

The omnichannel approach is a trend in communications for many industries and agrarian is no exception. Online and offline media resources formats, own platforms, participation and partnership in events, cooperation with thought leaders – comprehensive and systematic use of these channels and tools establish effective communication with both B2B and B2C audience.

Author: Revide Ziyatdinova

The pandemic has become a catalyst for digitalization: businesses are forced to explore new directions to stay afloat. A conventional restaurant, which did not need to master food delivery before the pandemic, is forced not only to set up and optimize internal processes, but also to fight for attention on Google and Facebook advertising platforms. What is it, Internet marketing 2021 and where should digital agencies move to be on the wave with the client? Preference is given to those who have a bigger financial cushion and who are more adept at working with new technologies. Lockdown has forced more than one business to digitalize, so competition for advertising space has grown. More companies have started competing for a place in the Instagram feed and for the second position in the search (advertising) issue of Google. The user wins here, because he gets more choice. Representatives of the business, competing for placement (place for advertising), pay more. That is why those who are able to overpay have an advantage in the fight, and those who can better and more meticulously adjust and optimize the advertising process. Approaches to data analysis are changing: Facebook will no longer be able to “read minds.” Apple has given users a choice: to share data or not. Refusal to track will hit the entire industry: targets will not be able to qualitatively adjust advertising, which will reduce the effectiveness of online marketing. Owners of media sites that rent banner ads will receive fewer clicks, which means less profit. That is, there will be a rollback of efficiency for several years, and the feeling that Facebook “reads thoughts” will no longer be. At least for some time, because new methods are being developed for data collection, and in order not to lose information about site visitors, you need to use new approaches in web analytics. One such approach, in particular, Perfect PR is already testing internally. Analytics is driving. Just “going digital” doesn’t work anymore. You need to be able to work with system algorithms, collect data, analyze them, and, importantly, make the right decisions. And the right decisions are those that are based on a sufficient amount of data. Therefore it is necessary to know, for example, such indicators as ROI, ROMI, ROAS, LTV, and to make decisions already on the checked indicators. Where do you need to be now to be on the same page with your client? Wherever there is a client. After all, the conventional Kyiv construction company competes in the fight for placement not only with the other 200 companies that also advertise housing, but also with food delivery, a new smartphone, a taxi, flower delivery, another trendy toy… And if you go even further, you need to compete with a friend’s story on Instagram, with a long-time business analyst on LinkedIn, a funny dog ​​with Tik-Tok, a stand-up event on Facebook or a review of a food blogger of a Japanese restaurant in Copenhagen on YouTube . And for this you need to clearly understand your client, properly collect data, properly analyze them and make the right decisions. Quality data and effective solutions ✌? Author: Taras Gumenyuk

Usually, when it comes to the press service, there is an association with a representative of the White House, who on behalf of the President holds a briefing for journalists and reporters, answers questions and is fully responsible for the public perception of the described actions of the head of state. However, such a unit as the press service has long existed not only in government agencies. In this article, we will examine in detail the functionality of the unit, for which industries and areas need specialists in this area, as well as – which ones.

Press service functionality

The main activity of the unit is interaction with the press on behalf of the representative – a public authority, enterprise, legal entity. Specialists of the press service maintain contacts with the press, create information materials to cover the activities of the organization, provide comments and observe the mentions of the organization or person in public with the help of media monitoring. C: One of the main goals of the unit is to provide the maximum number of publications, TV and radio programs that contain PR information about the authority / company / person, as well as about the activities of the object according to the information drive. The press service unit can be formed of several specialists who are responsible for specific areas, such as: author of texts, author of speeches, analyst, PR-manager and press secretary, who, in fact, holds a managerial position in the department. In large organizations, the number of specialists in the unit can reach more than 20 people, but in smaller structures, the function of the press service is performed by one specialist – the press secretary. The functions of the press service can be divided into key vectors: Building Media Relations. These include conducting interviews, writing and distributing press releases and information articles, preparing and announcing press conferences, conducting and monitoring briefings, writing and sending post-releases with key information. Sometimes communication with the press is done by an individual – a media manager, but the activities of a media manager are controlled by a press secretary and adjusted according to the information strategy. Maintaining a media base / press base. Employees of the press service are in constant contact with journalists and reporters, so they have to periodically update the databases with contact details of media managers. Create a positive image of the organization and / or the individual. Usually, the key messages that are part of the information strategy are transmitted through publications in the media, activities on television, radio. The set of measures taken forms an opinion in the audience, which interacts with information channels and disseminates to the masses. Preparation of media reviews for the head of the organization. Media and media are constantly evolving, especially in the digital space, so media monitoring is an important part of the daily process of every communications specialist. Media monitoring takes place in several areas: mentions of the brand and / or a specific person and the tone of these mentions (positive, negative, neutral), as well as monitoring of side topics related to the organization. Speechwriting and Preparing for Speeches. How an organization and / or a particular person is represented in the information space affects the public image, and therefore preparation for speeches, press conferences and briefings takes place with a communication specialist who needs to understand which statements and messages are worth speaking and which can. be potentially in crisis. Speeches for representatives of organizations are often written entirely by press secretaries, based on the theses of the speaker himself. [[::facebook::]] Formation of corporate culture. Preparation and publication of a corporate magazine, organization of events that are directly related to the work of employees. Similarly, in large organizations and structures, corporate and social communications can be handled by an individual, or even a department that fully controls this vector. Generate responses to requests for information from journalists and media representatives. The task of the press secretary can be a thorough response to the request. Often, in order to fully respond to a journalist’s information request, it is necessary to create internal inquiries in the relevant departments of the company and even conduct internal investigations. Maintaining the corporate website of the organization. Or at least a news block. The technical tasks are usually handled by other departments, but when the organization and / or the person are public, the press secretary must review and approve all the information presented on the external communication channels. As a result, some organizations outsource this task to a communications professional, and filling the site with content becomes a major responsibility. However, more and more often press secretaries play only an intermediate role in this process: they agree on the materials presented on the website and on the pages of social networks. C: A press release is an informational message that contains news about an organization or person or position on a socially important issue. The press release is an information guide for the media and is distributed for publication by press secretaries, members of the press service or simply the person in charge of public relations. Communications with the media also take place through events. These can be specialized and thematic forums and events, which in themselves serve as information drives. There are also a number of press events to discuss specific topics, organized by the press service or the press secretary.

  1. Briefing. During the briefing there is a brief meeting of representatives of organizations or individuals with journalists or other members of the media. At the briefing, the official position on a certain issue, information on the progress of work or negotiations, a digest of conferences or meetings, a summary of a specific event, etc. are expressed in a concise form. Often after the briefing, the press secretary provides journalists with thesis files that journalists can then use to create their own material.
  2. Press conference. Like a briefing, it is an event for the media, which presents the position of a company, organization or individual on a particular occasion. However, unlike the briefing, the format of the press conference is not concise: journalists have the opportunity to ask questions and get detailed answers.
  3. Breakfast. A more informal but important format, especially at the start of a public organization or person. Representatives of the mass media are invited to the press breakfast, the event is moderated by a press secretary, but the main figure of the event is a representative of the organization or an individual. During the press breakfast, contact is established with journalists: media workers go beyond the editorial office and have the opportunity to discuss troubling issues in an informal setting, as well as to discuss the position of the editorial offices on certain issues. C: Regular breakfasts and snacks allow you to maintain warm contact with the media and increase their loyalty.
  4. Prestur. Prestur is more often used by commercial organizations as an opportunity not only to tell about the company’s activities, but also to show the details of production (if any). Excursion events, branded products and speakers at different stages of the tour, which express the company’s position. After the event, the press secretary or the press service staff also have the opportunity to provide information to journalists, which is later released in press releases.

Government organizations and local authorities also use this way of interacting with journalists in their strategies when organizing trips to sites of different scale and importance, regional tourist routes, etc.

External Press Service

According to Stirista research, during the pandemic, the market for outsourcing services is becoming increasingly popular: more and more organizations prefer external specialists, whose activities are necessary for business development or structure, but are not urgently needed for staffing. These areas can also include the activities of the press service, the functionality of which can be partially or completely closed by PR-specialists with experience in reputation management in political, non-profit, business structures. In this case, the contract clearly regulates the vectors of work, which are assigned to external specialists. Most often, experts from scratch create a strategy to achieve goals, such as: [[::instagram::]] Information strategy. It is usually formed according to the needs of the customer, but the unifying features are the formation of the media base, approval of public positioning of the structure or person, portraits of the target audience, key messages and criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of this strategy. As a rule, the global goal of the strategy is the visibility of the organization and a positive image in the public space. PR strategy. If the information strategy is about forming the image of the organization, then PR is more about reputation. PR specialists conduct a detailed analysis of the organization or person, on the basis of which they build a strategy, the implementation of which will gradually close the main goal. PR-strategy includes information strategy as a component, and among the tasks there is also a leveling of the negative image, crisis management and system reputation management. Communication strategy (matrix). This product can combine several areas, including: PR, information vector, marketing communications, digital communication, brand communication, etc. Therefore, when it comes to the complexity of communications, organizations need to spend more resources on building units that will cover all needs. Cooperation with external specialists is more complete, as more specialists in different areas are working on the project.

Media monitoring

Media monitoring is one of the main tools of PR and communication specialists. When dealing with public and information space, it is necessary to carefully monitor the tone of the organization’s mentions in order to be able to respond in a timely manner and avoid the consequences of the crisis. The modern market has a wide range of proposals for automating the process of media monitoring: specialists themselves choose convenient tools and services for tracking mentions and tones. Monitoring findings are also one of the performance indicators measured by press service specialists. Tracking media reports on a given topic is used to track the effectiveness of PR, media, information campaigns, as well as to assess the public action, event, project of the company or person. The results of media monitoring are also often a starting point for the start of public events and the implementation of information or PR strategy, through which you can further measure the effectiveness of work. The distribution of mentions by tone will also allow us to observe the trend of mentions of the organization or representative and how these indicators change during the implementation of certain activities. [[::telegram::]] There are several tools for implementing media monitoring and we will describe those that have been used in Perfect PR at different times for 10 years:

  1. Manually search for an organization or person by keyword. Thus, through the search engine you can filter the query and find recent references in the press. However, this method has more disadvantages than advantages. For example, time consuming: now most processes can be simplified, automated and digitalized, so manual work will take more time than performing the same tasks with specially designed systems.
  2. Infostream – news monitoring technology. A simple system that checks the latest news for key queries and focuses on their key. This technology has been used by Perfect PR specialists for a long time, but with the expansion of the client portfolio and staff, Infostream’s functionality was lacking. The main disadvantage of the system is the high percentage of manual work and additional checks for the relevance of mentions. However, working with other services, we still return to Infostream as an additional tool with which you can quickly check the info field for the presence and tone of mentions, for example, a potential customer.
  3. YouScan is the system we switched to when we felt the need to research in detail for our clients and partners the info field in social media. YouScan can be configured to monitor key phrases, words, topics, as well as add words that, on the contrary, should not be ignored. You can connect chatbots to your system and receive instant notifications of new mentions in groups, publics, and even comments to be able to respond quickly.
  4. Looqme is a system that, unlike YouScan, has enhanced functionality across monitoring sites. In addition to social media, this system also provides information on mentions in the print media, radio, television, which is a great advantage for a specialist who builds the image and reputation of the organization or individual client.

The Ukrainian market of monitoring systems is constantly expanding and updating. As a result, telegram bots appear that monitor according to keywords and queries. Telegram bots are much cheaper than a subscriber subscription to one of the above systems, but the functionality is limited. There is no clear recommendation on which system to use. Specialists choose the means that are convenient for them that can meet most needs. The choice of monitoring system is an analytical work at the very beginning, because from the resources available on the market it is necessary to choose a technology that will meet the requirements of the project, organization, person. However, as a tool, the media monitoring system is clearly at the top of the list of PR or press secretary.

Press service or PR agency?

One of the tasks of the press service is to ensure quick access of journalists, contractors and stakeholders to verified and up-to-date information about the company, organization or person. The advantage of the internal press service is full immersion in the life of the organization, quick access to speakers who can provide a comment or position on the situation. Separately, you can add knowledge of the subject and, accordingly, the industry media, with which you need to build contact. But a PR agency can be an auxiliary tool in building the work of the internal press service, or the main tool for creating such a unit in the organization. PR agencies have an understanding of how the press service should work, what vectors should be developed through this work, as well as how to effectively form a dialogue with journalists, opinion leaders, bloggers and stakeholders. In addition, agency specialists know the metrics by which to evaluate the effectiveness of a department or unit. Perfect PR Agency has experience in comprehensive media support of organizations and individuals and provides outsourced information support services for 10 years. Also, our specialists can build the structure of the press service department, conduct comprehensive training of the organization’s specialists, and select a qualified specialist to implement public relations work.

Author: Olena Paplynska

Any work does not make sense if it does not bring results. Not to mention the work of a publicist, measured by the reputations of public figures and the businesses of large companies. The success of a PR specialist depends not only on the ability to use communication tools, but also on many other factors, as well as the character traits of the specialist, which can have a decisive influence on the outcome of the entire PR campaign.

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Among a number of objective and subjective factors, there are several key components of a successful PR manager & # 8211; it is a quality brief, clear communication with the client and trust.

Quality Brief

Brief & # 8211; this is the first detailed acquaintance of a PR specialist with his client and the basis for creating a communication strategy. Therefore, a quality brief should include information about the advantages of the company or public figure, which stand out against the competition, and the weaknesses and shortcomings. And having received a brief with a list of not very pleasant questions, the customer should understand it. For example, if in your youth you tried yourself in the profession of a stripper in a nightclub, and today you want to run for mayor of this city or go into big politics, it is better to mention this as a potential reputational risk. After all, then the publicist will always have trump cards in his pocket and will be able to work out crisis issues to anticipate information attacks and accusations from competitors.

Answers to brief questions and goal setting should always be as accurate as possible. Instead of the goal of “improving the company’s image”, a clear wording would be better, for example: “to demonstrate the company’s transition from an industrial producer to a high-tech enterprise.”

Also brief & # 8211; it is a way to learn not only about the goals and wishes of the client, but also to find out how the customer perceives the PR-service of his project. This will help set priorities and adjust this vision as needed. After all, it happens that the client, for example, once a week wants to see an extensive article about himself with beautiful quotes on five sites and in two newspapers, although this tactic & # 8211; it is an open advertisement that will not give the necessary feedback from the target audience.

Detailed and honestly processed by the client brief & # 8211; this is half the success of a PR specialist, and therefore & # 8211; and the customer.

Qualitative interaction

The work of a PR specialist is significantly asked not not only a clear request for PR services, but also adequate communication & # 8211; that is, timely provision of information on current events and strategic plans of the company. After all, such information can affect the implementation of the communication strategy pursued by the publicist. Sometimes and radically change it. For example, if a customer suddenly decides to change his target audience from single housewives to mothers with many children or add a new direction of production. The optimal solution & # 8211; these are monthly joint meetings (if not more often) to discuss plans, ideas and news. The client and the PR specialist should become partners, not competitors or superiors and subordinates. It should be emphasized here that a PR specialist should have free access to the company’s management or a public figure and the ability to promptly receive comments on a particular issue. This is especially important in crisis situations, when it is necessary to appear in the media with a press release within 20 minutes.

The work of a publicist is influenced by the client’s trust , his confidence in the professionalism of the PR-specialist & # 8211; that is, the customer’s ability not to interfere in the current work with the project. I emphasize & # 8211; namely the current one, which is conducted in accordance with the communication strategy. After all, often the decisions that the customer insists on are based on personal preferences and perceptions or “because the wife / neighbors said so advised” & # 8211; without taking into account the general specifics of communication and PR-market rules. In the interests of the client & # 8211; carefully choose your PR, in the interests of PR-specialist & # 8211; do not go on a leash in the principle of “the client is always right”. Otherwise & # 8211; for both, it will end in failure and an unrealized communication strategy.

Each project is unique and requires a separate approach, and in order to build an effective communication campaign and achieve PR goals, it is first important to properly establish internal communication “client & # 8211; PR specialist ”.

The principle of effective brand collaboration or, in other words, co-branding is “1 + 1 = 3 or 5 or 7 or more”. That is, by joining forces and working closely together, brands get much more than just a partnership or launching another project.

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In this way, brands go beyond their own “framework” and change positioning vectors, develop new interesting products, expand their own target audience and, importantly, sometimes even make a better world. Some of the brands have 5 or more collaborations. Each of them is a separate informational occasion, which is actively and for a long time discussed in public. But all this is possible only if you choose the “right” partner – you should share common values ​​and expectations with him.

One of the foundations of choosing a partner for collaboration – the confidence that the reputation of your own brand will not suffer and the audience of each parties will understand the project. It should be borne in mind that collaborations can be short-term (for the purpose of implementing one project), long-term (within brand strategies) and combined (there may be several projects, but cooperation at the level of strategies is not provided).

share some examples of collaborations that we think were some of the brightest.

Gap and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS: How Clothing Changes the World

In 2006, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS launched a joint campaign with Gap, the US clothing brand and one of the largest retailers in the United States, called PRODUCT (RED). Gap has invited the stars to take part in photography in their own line of clothing – Gap (PRODUCT) RED. Each of the photos was accompanied by thought-provoking questions. For example: “Can the inscription on the shirt change the world? This one can. The Gap (PRODUCT) RED clothing line was created to support the AIDS program. .

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Then these photos were published in all famous fashion magazines, including Vogue. Since the launch, the campaign has raised more than $ 130 million, making it one of the most successful co-branding programs. It continues to this day, as products with the prefix “RED” are already produced by Apple Inc., Nike, American Express (UK), Starbucks, Converse, Armani and others.

Swatch and Venice Biennale: support for art

Almost immediately after its creation, in the 80s of the last century, the Swiss watch brand Swatch began to cooperate with the art world. To this day, the company has an art collaboration program in which it creates its own limited collection of Swatch Art Special watches. The brand has collaborated and is collaborating with such representatives of the creative industries as director Pedro Almodovar and Akira Kurosawa, designers Vivienne Westwood and Paco Rabanne and many others.

Swatch Group has also become a major partner of the Venice Biennale, one of the leading exhibitions of contemporary art. The brand presents its own pavilion with works created by artists while living in an art residence at the Swatch Art Peace Hotel in Shanghai (the program was established in 2011, since its opening it was attended by more than 240 artists from 45 countries world).

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On the occasion of the opening of the Venice Biennale, the brand presented a special project created in collaboration with the British abstract artist Ian Davenport – “Giardini’s Color”. Especially for the brand, the artist created a large-scale installation – a set of vertical aluminum panels, which were painted in more than 100 shades. This installation was also continued in the form of a limited series of watches Wide Acres of Time.

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Google and Oreo: The Operating System and Cookies

Another interesting and rather unexpected example of collaboration is the launch of an ad for the new Android operating system that Google has created with the Oreo cookie brand. This system is called Android Oreo. And the theme of the advertising campaign – a solar eclipse, which just happened in the days of the operating system on the market. Oreo advertisers created chocolate cookies in the form of a dark solar disk and together with Google developed the Android superhero Oreo.

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And what examples of collaborations save did you like the most?

Recently, the media spread the news that the outrageous mayor of Ivano-Frankivsk Ruslan Martsinkov demanded explanatory notes from the heads of departments whose Facebook pages have less than a thousand subscribers. In particular, he noted the poor performance of the City Funeral Service.

“Write all the garbage on your personal pages. About some important events and projects – on the pages of departments and companies. But they held a meeting – well, who reads it? “Even the Landfill and the Ritual Service have information, too,” Martsinkiv said. To increase the popularity of the city funeral service, the mayor asked to display the cost of services or information about who died.

Public Communications Agency Perfect PR fantasized about SMM for the funeral service page. Namely, how it is possible to gain a large number of subscribers in such a short time in such an unpopular topic as funerals and death. And even how to make extra money on it.

You need to start with the banal & # 8211; defining the purpose of the SMM. Here it is obvious: to acquaint as many people as possible with the work of the City Funeral Service.

Even in non-standard topics you need to follow a standard approach. Therefore, although the heads of departments are not accustomed to such work, it is still necessary to write a detailed content plan. This is the most important document and it is from his creativity, and then compliance with the work, depends on the success of the page – achieving the goal.

In the content plan we make such headings:

1 . Entertaining. Strange as it may sound, this is a key category even for ritual themes. Nothing better (except for the distribution of prizes) does not attract the audience as information that makes you smile. Heading name & # 8211; “A moment of black humor.” It is not difficult to choose the content for it: funny anecdotes, memes, pictures about death and funerals – it’s all on the Internet.

We can argue that this section will be distributed by subscribers most often.

> In the picture:На зображенні: «Його останніми словами були: «Так, люба, ти виглядаєш товстою у цих джинсах»

In the image: “His last words were:” Yes, darling, you look fat in these jeans “

2. Information and entertainment. Tell your subscribers about the trends of the funeral industry, prepare amazing facts from funeral ceremonies (the most numerous funerals, the funniest funerals, etc.). Briefly tell the stories of the most pompous / touching / funny funerals in the world. These stories can be related not only to human funerals, sometimes loud funerals are also arranged for favorite pets (hamsters, cats and fish). In order to prepare such information, you need to use a good search engine and know English. There is a lot of such information in foreign English-language media.

Here is an example of one of the most expensive coffins in the world, worth 25 thousand dollars, in which the king of pop music was buried – Michael Jackson.

The late King of the Pops, Michael Jackson was buried in one of the most expensive coffins in the world. Jackson’s coffin is a solid bronze casket lined with blue velvet., and is hand-polished 14k gold plate finish. The coffin cost US 25,000.The late King of the Pops, Michael Jackson was buried in one of the most expensive coffins in the world. Jackson’s coffin is a solid bronze casket lined with blue velvet., and is hand-polished 14k gold plate finish. The coffin cost US 25,000.

The late King of the Pops, Michael Jackson was buried in one of the most expensive coffins in the world. Jackson’s coffin is a solid bronze casket lined with blue velvet., and is hand-polished 14k gold plate finish. The coffin cost US 25,000.

3. Reference information. It is possible to report information about the work of the funeral service (statistics, dynamics of deaths depending on the seasons or depending on who is the mayor ????).

In order not to scare subscribers, information about the work of the department should be given very briefly and not very often (should be no more than 30% of all content) .

4. Motivational. The theme of the funeral is not at all motivational and positive, so you need to work from the opposite. For example, introduce a motivational section “Live long”. Short tips from doctors and psychologists on how to live not only long, but also happily and fully.

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5. Useful Information. This is a very important section because it can be monetized. That is, the group will be able to earn money. For example, for additional funds to tell about the companies that organize turnkey funerals in the city. You can also advertise catering companies that can quickly and efficiently organize a funeral dinner, or shops that sell beautiful funeral wreaths. Of course, this can only be done when there are already enough subscribers in the group (at least one thousand).

And even by submitting ads , do not forget to add humorous comments.

A good example from the Italian company of ritual services, which used the slogan in the advertising company: “Do not get vaccinated, we are ready to the epidemic! “

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We will note, in publics with such irritating subject, jokingly, it is very important to feel borders not to run into a loud scandal. Therefore, our advice is theoretical. Still, we are sure that you can write interesting, fun and useful things on any topic.

According to the latest communication studies of the Ukrainian agrarian market, 89% of companies use PR tools in their activities. However, the researchers emphasized the lack of a strategic and comprehensive approach to communications for most companies. We share the features of communications for agricultural companies.
Special Events
Every farmer attends an exhibition, forum, conference at least once a year to find the necessary goods for their own business and to present their own products. Among the large number of Ukrainian and foreign manufacturers – it is easy to get lost. Therefore, in addition to traditional printing and product samples, you should be creative in the design of the stands to stand out from the competition and attract the attention of participants. Modern tools for this are VR-technologies, or video 3600, 3D-holograms, etc. Offer an interesting presentation of your product and the queue of those who want to test the novelty will not disappear near your stand.
Off-season communications
The seasonality factor in the agricultural sector is key. Search and purchase of seeds, mineral fertilizers, necessary equipment, periods of sowing, fertilization, harvesting – are very busy for all farmers. However, this does not mean that in the off-season, such as winter, companies should stop communicating. After all, this is exactly the period when farmers have more free time and they can be directed to communication messages in digital, specialized forums, industry media. In addition to useful and informative content in the off-season, you can communicate with the audience with interactive content, mem-jacking. The latter can have a great viral effect, which will increase the recognition of your brand.
Not the only agrarian media
High-quality media base is a key advantage of effective mailings and communication with editorial offices. In addition to agricultural media (both online and print formats), attention should be paid to public and business media. There are several reasons for this: on such media platforms there is less competition with other market operators that are actively promoted in agricultural media; business media is probably read by representatives of the B2B segment, so this is a good opportunity to prove yourself there. If your company operates only in a certain region, be sure to communicate at regional sites. This contributes to the formation of the company’s reputation at the local level and the brand of the employer.
Expert and Market Feedback
The agrarian community is very developed in Ukraine. Usually market operators, contractors know each other, communicate at industry events, online platforms, trust the expert opinions of colleagues and scientists. Therefore, joint materials, collaborations, video reviews of your products from your customers and other agricultural market participants always have a positive effect in building loyalty to the trust of your company.
Omnichannel Approach
The omnichannel approach is a trend in communications for many industries and agrarian is no exception. Online and offline media resources formats, own platforms, participation and partnership in events, cooperation with thought leaders – comprehensive and systematic use of these channels and tools establish effective communication with both B2B and B2C audience.

Author: Revide Ziyatdinova